Note: Regions are still a work-in-progress. Part 1 has been successfully prototyped, but parts 2-5 are only a preview describing how we expect them to work in practice, to show where we're headed and what we're aiming for. They could surpass our wildest expectations, or they could shatter and implode into a glorious fireball, who knows! Follow along as we implement all this, and reach out if anything isn't clear! 0 1

Vale has an ambitious goal: to be fast, safe, and easy. There are a lot of stellar languages that have two, and we suspect it's possible to really have all three.

This isn't quite possible with today's more well-known approaches. Languages with borrow checking have great run-time speed, and languages with garbage collection have better flexibility, simplicity, and development velocity, but we haven't yet seen a way to get all these benefits at once.

However, by blending two new techniques, we can make something with the best of all worlds: fast and safe, while keeping the language simple and flexible. 2

The first technique is called generational references, which is memory-safe, easy, and pretty dang fast. 3

We can make it even faster by combining it with a new technique called regions. 4

This article is a summary of the five-part series explaining regions, check that out if you want more details!

Side Notes
(interesting tangential thoughts)

If anything isn't clear, feel free to reach out via discord, twitter, or the subreddit! We love answering questions, and it helps us know how to improve our explanations.


We're aiming to complete regions by early 2024, check out the roadmap for more details.


If we're lucky, the blend could have as little memory overhead as borrow checking in practice: zero-cost temporarily immutable references, with the occasional generation check for non-temporary references (which, in borrow checking, usually become indexes or IDs which incur bounds checking or hashing costs on use).


It also enables some fascinating features like Higher RAII!


Regions also power Vale's more interesting features like Seamless, Fearless, Structured Concurrency, Fearless FFI, allocators, and hybrid-generational memory.

A Mile High View

Vale's memory safety comes from generational references which are pretty fast: they only incur between 2% and 10.84% speed overhead in our benchmarked program, a terrain generator. This alone is fast enough for most programs, while still being easy to use. 5

One should generally keep a program loose and flexible, and then profile it to find the small sections of their code that would benefit from optimization.

That's where regions enter the picture.

A region is a grouping of data that we can freeze and unfreeze as one, to make it either "mutable" or "immutable".

While a region is immutable it's much faster to read from, because the compiler no longer needs to insert any generation checks to ensure that a generational reference still points to a valid object.

We have three tools to put data into regions:

  • Pure functions temporarily put all incoming data into an immutable region.
  • Isolates are regions of data where nothing inside can point out, and nothing outside can point in, except for the owning reference.
  • Cells are like more flexible isolates, with some restrictions moved to run-time.

These are explained more throughout the rest of the article.

Regions are opt-in; one can write their entire program without knowing about regions at all.


Note that there's only one benchmark program so far, and we're comparing Vale without generational references (zero overhead, equivalent to C) to Vale with generational references. We'll be able to compare more directly to other languages once we support inline data, hopefully in mid-2023. Still, these results are particularly promising, considering Java's 89% speed overhead, Go's 183%, and Swift's 320% measured in this article.

The easiest way to use regions

In any program, many functions just read data from the world and calculate something new.

We call these functions "pure".

A Vale programmer 6 can find these and annotate them with the pure keyword, like in this function.

Simply adding pure will inform the compiler that the List, all of its Ships, plus ship, all have immutable data.

pure func printShipNames(
tenShips &List<Ship>)

void {
foreach i in 0..tenShips.len() {
ship = tenShips[i];
name =;



Adding the pure keyword eliminates every single generation check in this function, making its memory safety zero-cost. 7

How does this work?

pure functions see their parameters as all inside an immutable region, separate from its own internal region. 8

Here's that snippet again, where everything from the immutable region is bolded.

printShipNames's own data (such as i) is in its own private mutable region.

pure func printShipNames( tenShips &List<Ship>) void { foreach i in 0..tenShips.len() { ship = tenShips[i]; name =; println(name); } }

This is only a high-level taste, check out Immutable Region Borrowing for more on how this works!

It's pretty easy to do this for any function that only reads from its parameters. And in practice, functions can often be adjusted to be read-only, so that they can add the pure keyword too.

There is a restriction, however. We can only hand immutable data (like the above List and Ships) to functions that are also pure or have region markers as shown in the next section.


...or even static analysis tools, in theory!


This happens surprisingly often, a lot of functions can use regions to eliminate every single generation check. It isn't a universal phenomenon though, any non-trivial stateful program is guaranteed to have some memory safety overhead, no matter what language or paradigm you use.


pure functions have a hidden feature: they can temporarily see multiple regions as one combined immutable region. This makes them much more flexible and reusable!

Region Markers

Pure functions, like the above, automatically know which data was in an immutable region.

However, if we want to hand this immutable data to another (non-pure) function, we sometimes need to add region markers to it. 9

Region markers are fairly simple to use, and don't come with any complicated concepts or aliasing restrictions. 10

Here, we just add <r'> (or any other letter) after the function's name, and in front of any type that's from the immutable region.

func copyShip<r'>(
  from &r'Ship,
  to &Ship)
void {
  set to.fuel = from.fuel;

The compiler uses these region markers to make sure that:

  1. We don't modify data in a read-only region (such as the r' above).
  2. A reference into a region doesn't outlive the region itself.

For more on this, check out Immutable Region Borrowing.

Before we talk about the other ways to put data into regions, let's talk about the motivating principles behind regions!


We can also hand immutable data to generic functions, such as List<T>'s contains, without adding any region markers. This is because the compiler makes no assumptions about what region that T might be in; it's prepared for T to be in a separate region, so there's no need to add region markers. One could say that T comes with its own implicit region markers.


In Vale, we can freely alias regions.

For example, x' and y' could refer to the same mutable region, even if there's a read-only region r' referring to it. We can even use a pure function to then temporarily flip all those to immutable.

This all works because any function that receives a read-only region will automatically be monomorphized into two functions in the final binary: one that receives a mutable region (and does generation checks), and a faster one that receives an immutable region.

Progressive Disclosure, Avoiding Forced Restrictions, and Ignorable Complexity

Many situations fit regions' restrictions easily and seamlessly, such as:

  • Read-only calculations that can be phrased as pure functions.
  • Temporary data that we only ever read, after it was created.
  • Objects with "private" data, that nobody outside knows about.

Theoretically, with enough effort, any code can be phrased in terms of regions. However, when a language forces the user into a certain paradigm, it tends to have a steeper learning curve and a lot more complexity.

Instead, Vale has a core principle of avoiding forced restrictions, so that it can stay simple, flexible, and easy to learn.

For this reason, Vale's regions are opt-in. In fact, one can write an entire Vale program without knowing about regions. 11

These programs still benefit from regions, of course: the standard library (and many other libraries) use regions under the hood, and the compiler will automatically use regions for iteration and other situations where part of the data is read-only.

Since regions are opt-in, one only needs to know about regions for the parts of their code they want to make even faster, usually after their profiler identifies the specific sections of their code that would benefit from optimization.

This is also consistent with another Vale core principle, progressive disclosure, where things are simple by default. The user can progressively discover the more complex features as they need them, rather than needing to know them all at once. 12

The last principle behind regions is ignorable complexity. If a user sees any pure or ', they can ignore them and still understand the code, because regions don't change the semantics of the program. In a way, they're just an optimization hint that can be safely ignored. 13

We need languages that are simple, safe, readable, and fast by default, with any extra restrictions being opt-in and ignorable. These principles are what originally motivated Vale. 14


This is very important, not only because it makes Vale easier to learn, but because most code in practice should optimize for simplicity and flexibility, not speed. On top of that, most programs don't need to optimize away generation checks because they're pretty fast already. One should optimize away quadratic algorithms first, and they might even find that their program is fast enough at that point.


This is a principle I hope more languages pick up. C# does this well with its struct keyword; you can completely ignore the feature until you want it.


In fact, our test interpreter does ignore them!


In general, we should focus on making programming better for humans. Balancing that with performance is a fascinating design challenge!

Isolates are separate regions of data

Often, the vast majority of a program's generation checks can be eliminated with pure functions. If we want to go even further, we can use isolates.

An isolate is just a hierarchy of data where nothing inside points out, and nothing outside points in except for the owning reference. 15

An isolate forms a region that is mutable by default, and can be frozen and unfrozen independently of the rest of the program. 16

We use ' to specify something is an isolate, and .imm to temporarily access that data to read it immutably.

In this example, we isolate the cannon by putting a ' in front of the Cannon call.

Then, to immutably borrow the data, we use cannon.imm.

exported func main() {
  cannon = 'Cannon(12, ...);
  ship = Ship(100);
  fire(cannon.imm, &ship);
  println("Ship's new hp: {ship.hp}");

We can also use .open to open it for read-write access. The compiler makes sure that we don't use .open and .imm at the same time on the same region.

Lastly, we can use .read, which gives us read-only access while allowing it to be .opened at the same time, though it doesn't have the performance benefits of .imm. 17

Note that isolates are a little more restricted when inside structs. We can avoid those restrictions by using a cell, like ''Cannon, which moves the check to run-time.

Check out Isolates for more!


We actually can have references inside pointing out, as shown in the next section.


Someone once described this as "a borrow checker you can precisely enable and disable," which is a pretty apt description, though regions don't impose the same aliasability-xor-mutability restrictions as borrow checking.

And since Vale data has no aliasing restrictions, it can do all the useful patterns like intrusive data structures, graphs, observers, back-references, dependency references, callbacks, delegates, and more kinds of RAII plus Higher RAII!


One would usually use .read in non-performance-critical code or when they aren't sure whether someone else is .opening it at the same time.

Isolates can have references to objects outside themselves

Most isolates have two rules:

  • No objects outside the isolate point in (except for the owning reference).
  • No objects inside the isolate point out.

That second rule is optional, an isolate can contain references that point outward.

One way to do this is for a struct to have a region parameter.

This Ship can still be in an isolate, even though it contains a reference to a Dock in a different region.

struct Ship<x'> {
  dock &x'Dock;

In practice, this lets us put a lot more data into isolates. Many structs can put all of their private data into an isolate.

We also get this for free if we use generics. The compiler assumes that the T in List<T> is in a different region, as if it had an implicit region parameter.

Check out One-way Isolation for more on this!

And so much more!

There are a lot of interesting aspects in the five-part series that aren't covered here, such as:

  • Every mutex contains an isolate! 18
  • We saw non-owning references to other regions, but a struct can actually contain another region's data. 19 Multi-Region Data explains more on this.
  • Regions help enable Seamless, Fearless, Structured Concurrency.
  • Structs can immutably borrow from isolates. This is how Vale achieves zero-cost iteration, and makes entire architectures like entity-component-system zero-cost. Scoped Data has more on this!
  • Fearless FFI uses regions under the hood, to give us memory safety even when interacting with non-memory-safe languages.
  • We can attach an allocator to an isolate, such as BumpAllocator^'Fleet. 20
  • We can completely contain a third-party library's code inside an isolate if we wanted to; isolates are very composable.

Plus, every global is in a mutex, so every global has a isolate.


Collections do this. For example, we can have a List<x'Ship>, where each List node literally contains and owns some data from region x'.


Actual syntax TBD.

Tying it all together

We saw three ways to put data in regions, to specify which data can be temporarily immutable:

  • pure which makes a function see all of its parameters as from an immutable region.
  • "isolates" like 'Ship which we can access with .imm, .open, or .read.
  • "cells" like ''Ship which move the check to run-time.

Regions have some particular strengths:

  • They can make our program faster in the specific areas that need it.
  • They are opt-in, which keeps the language simple.
  • Their restrictions don't spread to callers, which keeps our programs flexible.

To compare, today's existing approaches are fairly good, but they either:

  • Have more pervasive restrictions which can spread to the rest of the program. 21
  • Have no immutability, and must rely on slower techniques for run-time memory safety. 22

Blending regions with generational references is simple, safe, and fast by default, and also lets us eliminate the last bit of memory safety overhead where it's needed.

Note: Keep in mind this is only a preview describing how we expect regions to work in practice. Follow along as we implement all this, and reach out with any questions! 23

For example, in functional programming, everything is immutable by default, and we often emulate mutability with tools like the state monad, which tends to spread to any callers, and all their callers, and so on.

Borrow checking has this weakness too: aliasing restrictions often bleed through API boundaries and cause extra refactoring throughout the codebase, and we can only partially trade those restrictions for others in certain cases.

Both paradigms are great in a lot of situations, and can often result in unnecessary complexity in areas that don't benefit from those restrictions.


This is referring to approaches like reference counting and tracing garbage collection.


If anything isn't clear, feel free to reach out via discord, twitter, or the subreddit!


As we saw, regions let us temporarily freeze specific data in our program, to let us immutably access it to make our code faster.

If you want to learn more, check out the more in-depth series:

That's all for now! We hope you enjoyed this article. If you want more, then subscribe to our RSS feed, twitter, discord server, or subreddit!

If you're impressed with our track record and believe in the direction we're heading, please consider sponsoring us on GitHub!

With your support, we can bring regions to programmers worldwide!

See you next time,

- Evan Ovadia

We're looking for sponsors!

With your help, we can launch a language with speed, safety, flexibility, and ease of use.

We’re a very small team of passionate individuals, working on this on our own and not backed by any corporation.

If you want to support our work, please consider sponsoring us on GitHub!

Those who sponsor us also get extra benefits, including:

  • Early access to all of our articles!
  • A sneak peek at some of our more ambitious designs, such as memory-safe allocators based on algebraic effects, an async/await/goroutine hybrid that works without data coloring or function coloring, and more.
  • Your name on the home page!

With enough sponsorship, we can:

  • Start a a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization to hold ownership of Vale. 24
  • Buy the necessary computers to support more architectures.
  • Work on this full-time.
  • Make Vale into a production-ready language, and push it into the mainstream!

We have a strong track record, and during this quest we've discovered and implemented a lot of completely new techniques:

  • The Linear-Aliasing Model that lets us use linear types where we need speed, and generational references where we need the flexibility of shared mutability.
  • Region Borrowing, which makes it easier to write efficient code by composing shared mutability with the ability to temporarily freeze data.
  • Higher RAII, where the language adds logic safety by enforcing that we eventually perform a specific future operation.
  • Perfect Replayability makes debugging race conditions obsolete by recording all inputs and replaying execution exactly.

These have been successfully prototyped. With your sponsorship we can polish them, integrate them, and bring these techniques into the mainstream. 25

Our next steps are focused on making Vale more user-friendly by:

  1. Finalizing the compiler's error messages and improving compile speeds.
  2. Polishing interop with other languages.
  3. Growing the standard library and ecosystem!

We aim to combine and add to the benefits of our favorite languages:

We need your help to make this happen!

If you're impressed by our track record and believe in the direction we're heading, please consider sponsoring us:

If you have any questions, always feel free to reach out via email, twitter, discord, or the subreddit. Cheers!


Tentatively named the Vale Software Foundation.


Generational references, the linear-aliasing model, and higher RAII are all complete, and region borrowing, fearless FFI, and perfect replayability have been successfully prototyped. Be sure to check out the experimental version of the compiler!